Welcome Information Connoisseurs

Welcome Information Connoisseurs

Thursday, October 29, 2015

Debunking Tibetan/Nazi rumors

Right wing myths with an endless shelf life

I received the following from a correspondent:

"During the 1940s Tibetan volunteers formed brigades attached to the Cossack regiments fighting Communism with NS Germany. The Tibetans with their endurance of sub-zero temperatures, refusal to surrender made them among the toughest fighters against the Soviets. They were exceptional horsemen and staged some of the last cavalry charges in history. It was the remnants of these brigades that the Soviet army found in the ruins of Berlin, having fought to the last” (end quote).

Around 1980, at the request of "Bill G.," I asked Agehananda Barati (Leopold Fischer) if this story was true. 

Barati/Fischer was Professor of Sanskrit and Anthropology at Syracuse University and a former member of Hitler’s “Free India Legion.” He was one of the few men alive who would be in a position to know if the rumor about Tibetans in Berlin fighting for Nazi Germany was true. 

Barati/Fischer told me the story about the Tibetans was pure buncombe. 

His obituary is here.

Michael Hoffman

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Another Thought Crime Trial Underway in Canada

Miner on Trial at the Behest of the B’nai Brith

By Michael Hoffman

Quesnel, British Columbia, October 27  Canadian Arthur Topham, 68, is a British Columbia (B.C.) placer miner who in his spare time operates the “Radical Press,” a website. On May 16, 2012 he was on his way to work at his mining operation when he was arrested by several police officers, handcuffed and charged with a "hate crime."

Topham was charged with a single count of "willfully promoting hatred against people of the Jewish religion or ethnic group,” as well as "improper storage of firearms" found in his house near Quesnel, B.C. 

“The branch has approved charges against him,” said Neil MacKenzie of the B.C. Criminal Justice Branch. MacKenzie said British Columbia’s assistant deputy attorney general had signed off on the hate crimes charge. 

"We’re glad that the government and the police have taken our concerns seriously and proceeded,” said Anita Bromberg of B’nai Brith Canada, which had demanded that prosecutors investigate Topham’s website. The charges are based on articles appearing at his website: http://www.radicalpress.com/?page_id=3864

On Monday, October 26 the trial, "Regina v Roy Arthur Topham, "commenced in B.C. Supreme Court in Quesnel, located in the interior of British Columbia in an area known as the Cariboo. (Regina is  a reference to the British Crown).

The inquisition against the anti-Zionist dissident is based upon Sec. 319(2) of the Criminal Code of Canada concerning “Hate Propaganda”   "Roy Arthur TOPHAM, [is charged with] willfully promote hatred against an identifiable group, people of the Jewish religion or ethnic origin, contrary to Section 319(2) of the Criminal Code.” 

B.C. Supreme Court Justice Bruce Butler is presiding and a jury of twelve men and women will make the final determination of guilty or not guilty. The trial is expected to end on November 6.

The defendants defense attorney, famed civil libertarian Doug Christie, died of cancer in 2013.

If found guilty, Mr. Topham faces imprisonment and a substantial fine. Local and national Canadian media are blacking out news of the case. Info.news is the nearest news outlet. The editor, M. Jones, can be contacted as follows: email mjones@infonews.ca or telephone 250-718-2724.

The corporate American media both Right and Left have traditionally demonstrated little interest in reporting Canada’s Orwellian thought crime prosecutions of Christians, ethnic Europeans and free spirits like Topham. The government of Canada has never prosecuted any bigot for fomenting hatred against Germans or conservative Christians.

Legal arguments and background related to his case are online here:

Hoffman is the author of The Great Holocaust Trial.

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Sorry, Einstein

"...The new experiment, conducted by a group led by Ronald Hanson, a physicist at the Dutch university’s Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, and joined by scientists from Spain and England, is the strongest evidence yet to support the most fundamental claims of the theory of quantum mechanics about the existence of an odd world formed by a fabric of subatomic particles, where matter does not take form until it is observed and time runs backward as well as forward.

"...The tests take place in a mind-bending and peculiar world. According to quantum mechanics, particles do not take on formal properties until they are measured or observed in some way. Until then, they can exist simultaneously in two or more places. Once measured, however, they snap into a more classical reality, existing in only one place."

“Sorry Einstein,” NY Times, Oct. 22, 2015.

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Capsule review of “Bridge of Spies”

Capsule review of “Bridge of Spies”

Steven Spielberg directs Tom Hanks

Mr. Steven Spielberg is a consummate cinematic craftsman and this movie is another of his minor masterpieces: a study in character, the herd mentality and standing up to authority. The acting, sets, costumes, cinematography, lighting and casting are superb. This is a complete film with an opening, middle, conclusion and epilogue. That may seem a pro forma requirement for any major movie, but it’s a tall order for many contemporary filmmakers who are churning out movies that resemble half-baked ideas, and sketches stretched to fit 100 minutes, rather than complete narrative tales like “Bridge of Spies."

Tom Hanks portrays Jim Donovan, a highly ethical Irish-American attorney who defends a Soviet spy, “ Abel" (played by Mark Ryland with the same quiet dignity he brought to his portrayal of Thomas Cromwell for the BBC).

The film’s most outlandish propaganda is a matter of omission rather than commission. Hanks is besieged by the prosecutor, judge, police and people in the course of defending the communist Abel against the American Cain. Spielberg erases the significant pro-Soviet Left in America at the time whose numerous members based in New York (where the case is centered) would have surely contacted Donovan to offer assistance and support. It would have cost Spielberg next to nothing thematically to have shown a few shabby, obnoxious National Lawyers’ Guild types showing up on Donovan's doorstep with advice. The attorney could have been portrayed as dismissing them with contempt and Spielberg would have acquitted himself of denying a massive fact of 1957 American society: the existence of a powerful Old Left entrenched in the Judaic areas of the cosmopolitan east coast. He didn’t bother to acknowledge this reality. His movie shows Hanks’ character toiling in a sea of a right wing paranoia fully in possession of American society, with no dissenters, save one. Hanks’ Donovan character is the lone dissenter and that’s not only ridiculous, it renders the movie a fantasy; seriously detracting from its credibility. Will the American public notice in 2015? Probably not. This is an entertaining film which will gain a reputation as “thoughtful” and “inspiring” with its message of humane mutual respect between adversaries.

Another Spielbergian propaganda turn is found in his portrayal of the East German soldiers in the film: their haircuts, uniforms and demeanor clearly telegraph an identification of them as (post-war) Nazis, despite the fact they work for the Communists. Some Zionists will watch the wind-up German troops in "Bridge of Spies” and mutter, “The Germans never change.” Spielberg can’t seem to get a grip on his ethnic frenzy when it comes to WWII-era (and beyond) German soldiers. As in "Schindler’s List” (replete with its counterfeit Talmudic quote which became the movie’s motto), Spielberg the falsifier has a compulsion to stereotype them as evil automatons. Meanwhile, the evil Judaic Communist who was their superior in real life, East Germany’s Stasi Secret Police Counter-Intelligence Chief Marcus Wolf, the fiend who ordered the killing of Germans attempting to escape to the West over "The Wall”  (the would-be escapees are graphically depicted being machine-gunned in “Bridge of Spies”) is of course never mentioned or identified. (At the risk of being accused of being a pinko, I will hazard the guess that if Communist East Germany were still in existence it is doubtful that they would be so mentally defective and morally degenerate as to welcome thousands — much less hundreds of thousands —  of mainly young, uneducated and angry Islamic male migrants from Sudan, Syria and parts unknown;  anymore than Putin’s Russia does).

"Bridge of Spies” depicts American school children filled with fear bordering on panic over the likelihood of nuclear war with the Russians. As a child of the 1950s I can testify that I witnessed no such serious bouts of anxiety. We were as children exposed to nuclear war scenarios, but most of us were fascinated by the technology exhibited — science fiction come to life — rather than fearful of it. Perhaps it’s impossible for 21st century denizens to believe it, but in the late '50s we were too snug in our cocoons of small town security and peace to have seriously entertained the probability of nuclear attack. The prospect was too remote from our daily lives to effect us in the way Spielberg portrays. Adults built bomb shelters and some went to extremes. It was not an issue for me or my chums however, contrary to what Spielberg’s screenwriters (among whom are the Coen brothers), seek to convey.

It is true that for a few days in October of 1962, when President Kennedy challenged Nikita Khrushchev over the Cuban Missile Crisis, I recall my worried mother, who had a high level security clearance as a civilian employee of the Department of the Army, gathering us in our living room to pray on our knees for peace. Did she know something we didn’t? If so, even the gravity of her heavenly petition did not translate, in the mind of us kids, into anything approaching hysteria.

Spielberg’s Judaic religious fanaticism shows forth in a small way. The iconography that would have typically been on display in the Catholic home of Irish-American Jim Donovan in the 1950s —  crucifixes and pictures of the Blessed Virgin Mary —  are absent from the interior of the Donovan house in “Bridge of Spies." The set was perhaps denuded of these Catholic artifacts in keeping with Mr. Spielberg’s Orthodox Judaic revulsion for them, as recently personified by Pope Francis, who covered his pectoral crucifix with his hand as he bowed in deference to the bigotry of a visiting Orthodox Judaic lady in the Vatican (other Catholic clerics hide their crosses in the folds of their gowns before meeting Talmudic Zionists). 

The unlovable hardcase who plays the lead CIA agent in the film is named “Hoffman.” Hanks’ character makes a point of telling Hoffman that he has a German name and that he is a German. Watching the credits at the end of the film we checked to see what full name Spielberg had assigned to “Hoffman.” There was none. In the cast of characters actor Scott Shepherd is simply listed as “Hoffman.” 

Spielberg has wielded his powers of cinematic thaumaturgy to lionize Jim Donovan, on Spielberg’s terms, of course. Would that we had one so talented among us, to bring to the silver screen the dramatic biographies of men like Doug Christie, Robert Faurisson, David Irving, Germar Rudolf, Leuchter and Zündel.

Copyright©2015 by Michael Hoffman


"A lustreless protrusive eye  
 Stares from the protozoic slime 
At a perspective of Canaletto.   
The smoky candle end of time…"


Thursday, October 08, 2015

NY Times admits US arms Al Qaeda

The US fought a war in Afghanistan ostensibly to crush al Qeada for having attacked the Twin Towers in NY and the Pentagon on 9/11, and now the US government is arming the terrorists, and "objects to Russia targeting such groups.” 

Where are all the patriots to declare this what it is — treason against the American people and the victims of 9/11?

The New York Times admits that the US government arms Al Qaeda terrorists

Syria and Russia Continue Coordinated Assault on Militants 

By Anne Barnard
 NY Times online | Oct. 8, 2015 

“In a second day of a coordinated air and ground assaults in Syria, Russian warplanes, Syrian troops and their militia allies attacked insurgents on Thursday (October 8)...the groups are led by an Islamist coalition called Army of Conquest. That group includes Al Qaeda’s Syrian affiliate

"Insurgents in the Ghab Plain also include relatively secular groups who consider themselves part of the loose-knit Free Syrian Army, including some elements covertly equipped by the C.I.A. with advanced antitank missiles that have aided the recent Army of Conquest advances. 

"The United States has objected to Russia’s targeting such groups” 

(Emphasis supplied)

Wednesday, October 07, 2015

Anniversary of the death of Poe

Today is the 166th anniversary of the death of Edgar Allan Poe in Baltimore from — in our opinion — a blow to the back of his head. Poe was a committed opponent of Freemasonry and two of his best stories, "Never Bet the Devil Your Head" and in particular, “The Cask of Amontillado,” had anti-masonic themes. We offer a CD of this writer reading “Cask” and “The Raven,” and offering a biography of Poe’s life. See here (scroll toward the bottom of the page).  

I have felt Poe's spirit in my life ever since my late mother began, for some unaccountable reason, to read to me from Tales of Mystery and Imagination, starting when I was age five. Many years later when I queried her as to why she undertook this, not being a Poe enthusiast herself, she said she had no idea. 

The authentic Edgar A. Poe (he did not spell out his middle name in life as has been the custom after his death of his editors), is largely unknown today, even to people who imagine they are familiar with his biography. This is due in large part to Hollywood schlock as well as the teaching-stupid profession, which presents him in the context of a Halloween fright night, as if “The Pit and the Pendulum” were his signature writing. Few would have an inkling that's Poe’s aversion to Judaism materialized as a cruel prank (or “diddle” as he would say), on the night when he and his boon companion, the actor Edwin Booth, hung a certain Chosenite by his coat from the spikes of an iron fence. The only religious poem he ever penned, “Hymn," has a Catholic theme, and though Poe struggled with alcohol and sometimes abused it, he could not be termed an alcoholic. He had duties to his young wife and her mother which he fulfilled assiduously. 

In his firefly-brief life life of forty years (he was an almost an exact contemporary of Frederick Chopin, who was born a year later and died a year younger), he composed an oeuvre that constitutes a veritable shelf-long encyclopedia of books and articles, which would be almost impossible for a degenerate alcoholic to produce. In view of his accomplishment, I will borrow a line from Lincoln who, when his cabinet suggested during the War Between the States that Grant should be relieved of command due to his drinking, Lincoln replied, “Find out what type of whiskey Gen. Grant drinks and distribute it to my other generals.”


By Edgar A. Poe

At morn — at noon — at twilight dim —
Maria thou hast heard my hymn!
In joy and woe — in good and ill —
Mother of God, be with me still.

When the hours flew brightly by,
And not a cloud obscured the sky,
My soul, lest it should truant be,
Thy grace did guide to thine and thee;

Now, when storms of Fate o’ercast
Darkly my Present and my Past,
Let my Future radiant shine
With sweet hopes of thee and thine!


Friday, October 02, 2015

NY Times readers protest anti-Putin editorial


New York Times readers' protest an anti-Putin editorial:
 “Russia’s Dangerous Escalation in Syria” (October 2, 2015)

Editor’s Note: Here are three comments on the editorial. These comments were published by the Times online. They are fairly representative of the majority of the hundreds of published comments. The corporate media are quite obviously almost totally out of touch with the American people and they affect insouciance in the face of this fact. They continue, day-in and day-out, to attempt to school the peasants in the higher wisdom of the elite, while they mock Russia for having a state-controlled media, knowing that the U.S. has a Money Power-controlled media.

Carolyn - Saint Augustine, Florida:

 This editorial demonstrates the lengths that Russian opponents will go to, to manufacture hand wringing. I quote: “Military experts say that the Russian planes are old and could crash and that Russian weapons may not be precise enough to avoid extensive civilian casualties.” Seriously? The planes could crash is a cause for concern? 

Russia is doing what she should do to support an ally and bring stability to the region. The fact is that the insurgents could do a thing called surrender, and that would be the end of the bombing, but they don’t. They’re using American weapons against a secular regime that is sorely needed to reestablish some sense of civilization to a country consumed by terror and chaos. And those same American weapons will be used against American forces if Russia does not crush this rebellion. We should be thanking her instead of casting aspersions. 

The American government has been stung by its own hypocrisy and by backing essentially terrorists, and the real problem here, is that the American government does not want to be honest about it and admit a serious error in judgment. And it’s immature and patently ridiculous to try to cast Putin as some kind of power hungry maniac when that description more aptly applies to U.S., who - until recently - has embraced a foreign policy of “lick our boots or be overthrown.” And by the way, Gaddafi did just that, and look what happened to him.

Stephen J Johnston: 

It’s kind of ironic isn’t it. American neocons are besotted with neo Trotskyite notions of world revolution by the United States in a crusade to impose democracy, and they hold pride of place in the thinking of America’s bipartisan Foreign Policy Elite.

Mr. Putin, however; who is from the land of Trotsky and “The Revolution Betrayed” is the pragmatist, who actually wants to stop jihadism in its tracks, regardless of the interests of the Sunni Royals in destabilizing Syria! 

He is owned by neither Saudi Arabia or Israel. So he is able to see the fact of Sunni Jihadism as it is playing out in Syria, without the filters of the need to ensure petro dollar circulation or Israel’s latest demands for regime change, and act rationally to crush a clear and present danger.

ISIS is clearly the creation of our allies the Sunni Royals who have become dangerously panicked by the devolution of Sunni fortunes in Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein. 

The Giant Ghawar Oil Field alone has 70 billion barrels of oil, but it is located in the Shia Crescent, and the oil workers are Shia heretics. Think about how the Royals must have felt when the Shia majority walked off with the State of Iraq in an idiotically conceived general election. 

The US is too mired in the politics of oil and our less than ideal relationships with our autocratic Allies, to continue to entertain the absurd notion that one more regime change will make it all right. Putin has the clarity to act. Let him act!

JL U.S.A.—  

This is an embarrassing and simplistic editorial and comes on the heels of similar NY Times reports earlier this week. It ignores the utter failure of US policy in the region that destroyed functioning governments, killed tens of thousands of civilians and triggered a massive refugee and humanitarian (crisis). The Russian position to bolster the Syrian government, directly combat terrorism appears reasonable to stabilize the country and end the conflict. The US pushing for arming and funding a “moderate opposition” is delusional. The US took a similar position in Libya. How has that turned out?


Thursday, October 01, 2015

Twilight Language in the Case of the Umpqua shooter

First compiled on October 1, 2015

 Michael Hoffman

[I hope to update this column with new information over the next few days so check for updates, if you are interested].

October 2, 2015 Update:

Oregon Sheriff John Hanlin shared a Sandy Hook Conspiracy Theory on Facebook and wrote to V.P. Joe Biden to say he would not allow the people of his county to be disarmed   and then it's in his county where the next Manchurian Candidate opens fire and perpetrates a massacre at a school. Coincidence?

•Also notice how the prostitute media don't ask about what drugs might have been in the shooters' bloodstream.

October 1, 2015:

First up is this early report from The Guardian newspaper (Manchester, England). I have highlighted in boldface the twilight language hints and cues as I see them. My analysis follows. 

Chris Harper Mercer: first details emerge of Oregon college killer

Ben Jacobs and Nicky Woolf Thursday 1 October 2015 23.57 EDT


An email address, “ironcross45@gmail.com” was found to be associated with a Chris Harper Mercer of Winchester, Oregon...That address is linked to an account on the torrent upload site kat-ph.proxy-x.com, which bears the username “Lithium_Love”.The final video uploaded by Lithium_Love to the torrent site, just three days ago, was a BBC documentary called “Surviving Sandy Hook”...Other uploads include PDFs of the occult magazine Phenomena, conspiracy-themed documentaries like “Lost Secrets of the Illuminati”...A Myspace page bearing Mercer’s name is filled with...references to the Irish Republican Army, including a picture of the front page of the Irish republican newspaper An Phoblacht, bearing the headline “British Army Could Not Defeat IRA”....On the anarchic image-sharing message-board 4chan, rumors were flying on October 1 that the killer may have been one of their own. In an anonymous post at 1:19 AM on Thursday morning on the /r9k board... Don’t go to school tomorrow if you are in the northwest.”...his name was listed as a production assistant for an upcoming production of the Noel Coward play Blithe Spirit. (End quote from The Guardian).

Twilight Language Glossary in the Case of the Umpqua shooter
Copyright ©2015 by Michael Hoffman

Umpqua is an Indian word with a number of definitions and connotations, largely insipid and contradictory as far as I know at this point; nonetheless it's a foreign language word and sends the message that something needs to be decoded without which it cannot be understood.

ironcross45 In this context a neo-Nazi link.

Chris Harper Mercer The three name killer syndrome: Lee Harvey Oswald, John Wayne Gacy etc. etc.

Winchester The storied rifle that "won the West," and the "Mystery House" of the same name in California, built by the widow of the Winchester inventor who worried that she was pursued by the ghosts of the people his rifle had killed.

 kat-ph.proxy-x.com A proxy represents someone else. kat-ph has lots of connotations (In Pharaonic Egypt Osiris was the "great god in Ru-Kat; Horus was "the defender of his father in Ru-Kat;" kat-ph almost looks like the Egyptian  kat-ptah), but at this juncture I'll just call it another indicator of a term that needs decoding. x-com can reference the unknown in general, as well as x-rated, as in pornography.

Lithium_Love Lithium is a drug administered to manic-depressives by physicians and injurious to the blood which has to be monitored in those who ingest it. "Drug love" is an empty substitute for true love. Psychotropic drugs like Lithium (such as Luvox) have been ingested by school shooters such as Kip Kinkle and Eric Harris (Columbine).

Sandy Hook We’re "hooked" on mysteries and celebrity cults built around school shootings like the one in CT, with the suspicion that they are occult...Phenomena, conspiracy-themed...

An Phoblacht note similarity to ph.proxy These are more ciphers that send the message that something needs to be decoded. 

Lost Secrets of the Illuminati This Umpqua operation is one of those quondam secrets, made manifest through Revelation of the Method which, at its terminus, on Arlington Road, finds the sleuth who purports to investigate the conspiracy perpetrating it. (Cf.  "Arlington Road" screenplay by Ehren Kruger; William Hjortsberg, Falling Angel; Phillip K, Dick, A Scanner, Darkly).

British Army Could Not Defeat IRA I'm going go out on a limb here and suggest that this is probably inter-tribal chatter between one wing of the Cryptocracy and another, in which case it would translate as the defeat of the supposedly invincible 007. The 007 number is a symbol of espionage at one level, and at another level it symbolizes the whole occult British Israel project launched in the Elizabethan Age, which is still going strong from Greenwich, "the Palace" and the City. [The number of Yale's Skull and Bones is seven (“322": 3 + 2 +2 = 7)].

4chan / r9k board Pseudo military and tech argot connoting codes related to those glamorous realms. These can be learned by recruits.

Coward The definition of a shooter who attacks an unarmed (i.e. disarmed) "gun-free zone").

 Blithe Spirit Insouciant ghost, spirit of the dead; a haunting; which is what stuff like this is ultimately: the psychic haunting of America;also its brutalization and desensitization: the NFL's Oct. 1 "Thursday Night Football" played on schedule hours after the shooting. 

The rampage occurred on the same day (October 1) on which the NY Times online prominently reported the existence of a feminist group dedicated to bragging about having killed their unborn children via abortion (the Columbine school massacre occurred in the wake of NATO's 78-bombing and incineration of civilians in Serbia with US connivance). What goes around comes around. This is difficult for some people to comprehend; they block certain patterns, as they have been taught to do, even as their subconscious recognizes them, creating a wrenching schizophrenia between their waking consciousness and subconsciousness.

It's noteworthy that President Obama on Oct. 1 took the occasion of this particular massacre to cast in retrospect previous massacre-shootings (“7 times the president has responded to a mass shooting, including today” — Los Angles Times 8:12 pm Oct. 1), thereby turning the Group Mind toward reflection on the frequency, which is haunting.

This Umpqua massacre is surfeited with Twilight Language, whereas others in the recent past have been comparatively weak in this regard, although by no means absent. Permit me to also direct your attention to the “Blood Moon” that occurred three days before Umpqua on Sept. 28, to some considerable public trepidation and prophecies of doom at the time; raising expectations which were disappointed on the day but on October 1 they were excited again. Here we see a process of seduction: arousal, respite, arousal again leading to the climax.

Outside of the speaking-to-the-Group-Mind phenomenon that is Twilight Language, we see the emergence of a Christian and a racial dimension, as reported by CNN at 11:07 pm (Pacific time) on Oct. 1:

“Roseburg, Oregon (CNN)The gunman who opened fire at Oregon’s Umpqua Community College singled out Christians, according to the father of a wounded student...The gunman, while reloading his handgun, ordered the students to stand up and asked if they were Christians, Boylan told her family… 

“And they would stand up and he said, ‘Good, because you’re a Christian, you’re going to see God in just about one second,’ Boylan’s father, Stacy, told CNN, relaying her account.

“And then he shot and killed them.’ Boylan, 18, was hit in the back by a bullet that traveled down her spine. While she lay bleeding on the floor, the gunman told her, ‘Hey you, blonde woman,’ her father said. She played dead -- and survived.” (End quote) 

I’ll leave this Christian and racial dimension (Mercer is believed to be a mulatto) in limbo for the time being. For a long time after Columbine, rumor had it that 17-year old victim Cassie Bernall had been shot by Eric Harris because she affirmed her belief in God after he asked her about it. In reality, it looks as though eye witnesses have confirmed that Harris asked her nothing, but only pronounced to her the words “peek-a-boo” before he pulled the trigger.

Twilight language data continues to pour in and I wish I could say that I can afford to volunteer my services and stay on top of every bit of it every minute, for your benefit, as if I were an establishment journalist assigned to the case, or a retired person on a pension. Alas, I am neither. I spend most of my waking hours pursuing emolument not immediately related to breaking news. 

As noted at the top of this column, I will endeavor to add more attempts at detection and analysis after my duties to my day job are completed. 

Copyright reminder: permit an impecunious writer to maintain ownership over these insights (if indeed they qualify as such). 

Michael Hoffman is the author of Secret Societies and Psychological Warfare.